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Their study, reported in the May 11 issue of Nature, suggests that most of the gamma radiation reaching the earth may actually be leftover energy from massive shock waves induced by gravitational forces. Operating on intergalactic clouds of gas, these forces caused them to collapse into themselves, creating giant galactic clusters. This process produced electrons moving at nearly the speed of light -- roughly 185,000 miles per second. The electrons then collided with low energy photons of the 'cosmic microwave background radiation,' which is believed to be an 'echo' of the Big Bang (the point in time billions of years ago when the universe was created in a cosmic explosion). The collision scattered the photons and increased the energy of a fraction of them to that of gamma rays, thus producing the gamma-ray background radiation seen in today's universe.
The model proposed by Waxman and Loeb, which is consistent with the theory of particle development following the Big Bang, may shed light on the amount of gaseous material currently captured within intergalactic clouds, thereby unraveling another longstanding astrophysical mystery -- that of 'missing matter.' According to the Big Bang theory, the amount of ordinary matter (as opposed to 'dark matter,' which is invisible since it does not emit light) in the universe is much larger than that observed in stars and galaxies. Most of the ordinary matter in the universe may therefore be captured within intergalactic clouds, and the observed gamma-ray photons may be the first signature of its existence.
The model and its findings will be examined in upcoming years via an American research satellite probing gamma radiation throughout the universe, as well as a series of earth-based radio wave sensors.
Dr. Eli Waxman's research is supported by the Joseph H. and Belle R. Braun Center for Submicron Research.
The Weizmann Institute of Science is a major center of scientific research and graduate study located in Rehovot, Israel. Its 2,500 scientists, students and support staff are engaged in more than 1,000 research projects across the spectrum of contemporary science.